Geopolitical Significant of South and South East Asia in World Theater

Abstract South and South-East Asia cover global attraction in the time period. With emerging global economic, resident of around one-third of the total population, global power competition is focused in the region. Chinese influence in the region is rising on the other side, US engagements in the region to deter China is growing. This review paper will concentrate addressing the question: How does the region becomes pivotal point for geo-political competitions? With growing influence of China in the region, the US engagement is also increasing. This paper focuses on the power struggle of US and China in the region behind these engagements. The rising US military and economic assistance to countries like Nepal shows the geopolitical involvement in the region for global power politics. Download full Article

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Concern on Implementation of BRI in Nepal, a Challenge to New FM

Bidhur Dhakal Nepal is running behind the political hurdles after the formation of the New Government in 2022. The hunk parliament from the election held in 2022 has created political turmoil in Nepal. Soon after the electoral election coalition has break up and a New coalition with a majority of the leftist government was formed. The coalitions remained until the election of the President and were broke. The largest communist party in the coalition has stepped back. In this context, the country is lagging in foreign relations and foreign policy. For about one and a half-month foreign ministry was vacant. During this period there was a lagging of ministerial dialogue with the ‘Counter Part’ of other nations. It impacts Bilateral relations and enhances foreign affairs. This shows the irresponsible attitude of the leadership on foreign affairs. The political instability in Nepal is always been a concern of China. With the formation of New Govern in Nepal, the US engagement was in hype at the start of 2023. Soon after the change in the coalition vacant, the line ministry Nepal lags in engaging with the friend from the North. China has been concerned about Nepal’s political changes, especially with the US asking questions about the impact of the Tibetan refugee crisis. Communist leader Bhandari expressed his feelings that the Communist Party of China (CPM) was not only in China but also in good faith in the government. China is sure of Nepal. The national leader met him today. There is long-term lasting concern about the “Tibet Issue” in Nepal for China. The US official engagement in Kathmandu has raised it more. Next, the implementation of the BRI in Nepal. The US program MCC, which was agreed upon late after BRI, has been ratified by parliament and is going on implementation. BIR, on the other hand, is not able to proceed. China has communicated with Nepal concerning this issue regularly. The congratulatory message from President Xi Jinping to newly elected Nepalese counterpart Ramchandra Paudel has attached great importance to the development of China-Nepal relations and is willing to work with Poudel to carry forward the traditional friendship between the two countries, consolidate mutual political trust, advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, expand cultural and people-to-people exchanges, to constantly promote the strategic partnership of cooperation featuring ever-lasting friendship for development and prosperity. On the 15th Round of the Diplomatic Consultation meeting held between Nepal and China early this month, China again raised the issue of the implementation of BRI. Challenge for New Minister The member of the central working committee of the Nepali Congress party, Narayan Prakash Saud assumed the office of Foreign Minister in mid of April. A foreign affair is a new area for Saud, who has been entrusted with the responsibility of strengthening foreign relations by winning the trust of Prime Minister Puspa Kamal Dahal as well as balancing great power. It will be his responsibility to maintain balanced foreign relations by closely observing the growing geopolitical ups and downs internationally. Soon after assuming office at the Ministry, Minister Saud said that He said Nepal would continue to deepen relations with all its neighbours. Saud has taken charge of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at a time when the country’s challenge is to maintain balanced relations with India and China, which are emerging economies of different political systems, and to increase relations with other countries, including the US, in line with the national interest in the changing geopolitical environment. Foreign relations have to be managed in the context of internal political instability in Nepal and a coalition government between different political parties. Powers, including neighbours, are also trying to manage their interests. At such a time, it will be the responsibility to move forward with a non-aligned foreign policy. Nepal this time needs to avoid the geopolitical conflict of dominance in the US, China, and other countries in the world. Nepal has not given a clear answer to Beijing regarding the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) project initiated by China. Nepal signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in 2017 to join the BRI project. Similarly, Minister Saud has been challenged to clarify Nepal’s position on the Global Security Initiative (GSI) and The Global Civilization Initiative (GCI) initiated by China. As Nepal has participated in the US ‘Summit for Democracy’; which mainly focused on labelling China as “autocratic”. Mainly the US is tending Nepal to be a part of the Indo-Pacific strategy Nepal now need to clear the position of non-align in International relation. But, seem it is a major challenge for the New foreign minister. He should lead the ministry keeping in mind relations with the two neighbours, powers, development partners, and other friendly countries. This article is initially published in the Asia Live.

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हेल्थ सिल्क रोडः अवधारणा पुरानै चर्चा कोभिड -१९ सँगै, नेपाललाई के फाइदा?

काठमाडौँ: कोभिड-१९ महामारीसँगै विश्वमा ‘भ्याक्सिन डिप्लोमेसी’को चर्चा चुलिँदै गएको छ। यति बेला पश्चिमा राष्ट्रहरू चीनमाथि ‘भ्याक्सिन डिप्लोमेसी’ चलाइरहेको आरोप लगाइरहेका छन्। अर्कोतर्फ विश्वका अन्य देशहरू पनि भ्याक्सिन डिप्लोमेसीमा लागिरहेका छन्। महामारीकै बीच चीनको अर्को परियोजना पनि चर्चामा छ -हेल्थ सिल्क रोड। चीनले अगाडि सारेको परियोजना बेल्ट एण्ड रोड इनिसिएटिभ (बीआरआई) अन्तर्गत नै रहनेगरी बीआरआई सदस्य राष्ट्रको स्वास्थ्य पूर्वाधारमा सुधारका लागि अगाडि सारिएको यो परियोजनाको प्रभाव र फाइदा नेपालमा पनि हुने पक्का छ। नेपाल बीआरआई प्रोटोकलमा हस्ताक्षर गरिसकेको राष्ट्र हो। ‘हेल्थ सिल्क रोड (एचएसआर)’ के हो? एचएसआर अहिले सुरु गरिएको परियोजना भने होइन। कोभिड-१९ महामारीसँगै यसको चर्चा भने बढेको हो। महामारी बढेसँगै चिनियाँ नेतृत्वले एचएसआरको पक्षमा वकालत गर्दै आएका छन्। सन् २०१६ मा चिनियाँ राष्ट्रपति सी चिनफिङले उज्बेकिस्तानको संसदमा पुगेर हरित, स्वस्थ, बौद्धिक तथा शान्तिपूर्ण सिल्क रोड निर्माणको  आह्वान गरेका थिए। त्यहीँबाट हेल्थ सिल्क रोडको अवधारणा आएको थियो। कोभिड-१९ महामारी नआउँदासम्म एचएसआर बीआरआईकै सीमाभित्र रहँदै आएको थियो। कोभिड-१९ सँगै यसको छुट्टै चर्चा हुन थालेको हो। एचएसआर अहिलेको चीनको महत्त्वपूर्ण नीतिको रूपमा अगाडि आएको छ। र, यही नीति अनुरूप विश्वभर स्वास्थ्य साहायता प्रदान गर्दै आएको छ। यही अवधारण अनुसार बीआरआई लगानीमार्फत् सदस्य राष्ट्रहरूमा आधारभूत जनस्वास्थ्यका क्षेत्रमा लगानी बढाउँदै लैजाने बताएको छ। सन् २०१७ मा नै एचएसआरको चर्चा विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठनसम्म भएको थियो। चीन र विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठनबीच एचएसआर सम्बन्धी एमओयूमा हस्ताक्षरसमेत गरिसकेका छन्। डब्लुएचओ चीनसँग यस्तो सहमतिमा हस्ताक्षर गर्ने पहिलो अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय संगठन हो। त्यति बेला चिनियाँ राष्ट्रपति सीले संयुक्त रूपमा हेल्थ सिल्क रोड निर्माणमा हातेमालो गर्ने बताएका थिए। विश्व स्वास्थ्यमा चिनियाँ राष्ट्रपति सीले प्रस्ताव गरेको एचएसआरको चर्चासँगै प्रशंसा गर्दै डब्लुएचओका तत्कालीन महासचिवले मानव स्वास्थ्यलाई केन्द्रमा राखेर बीआरआईले दस्ताबेज प्रस्तुत गरेको बताएकी थिइन्। उनले त्यति बेला ६० देशका स्वास्थ्य नेतृत्व भेला भई सामूहिक रूपमा स्वस्थ सिल्क रोड निर्माणको आह्वानसमेत गरेकी थिइन्। २०१७ को मेमा बेइजिङमा सम्पन्न बेल्ट एण्ड रोड फोरममा चिनियाँ राष्ट्रपति सीले सिल्क रोडको भावनालाई आत्मसात गर्दै बीआरआईमा सहभागी राष्ट्रहरू हेल्थ सिल्क रोड र एजुकेशनल सिल्क रोड निर्माण गर्ने हाम्रो प्रयासमा बल गरेको बताएका थिए। उनले विज्ञान, शिक्षा, संस्कृति स्वास्थ्य तथा जनसम्बन्ध आदानप्रदानमा साझेदारी गर्ने उनले बताएका थिए। उनले त्यति बेलै बीआरआईमा सहभागी राष्ट्रहरूमा १०० खुसी घर परियोजना, १०० गरिबी निवारण परियोजना र १०० स्वास्थ्य स्याहार तथा पुनर्स्थापना केन्द्र परियोजना सुरु गर्ने घोषणा गरेका थिए। कोभिड-१९ र हेल्थ सिल्क रोड २०१९ को अन्त्यसम्म बीआरआई मातहतमा मात्र चर्चामा रहँदै आएको हेल्थ सिल्क रोड, कोभिड-१९ सँगै २०२० यता एकल रूपमा पनि चर्चामा आइरहेको छ। विश्व राजनीति तथा परराष्ट्र नीतिमा पनि प्रभाव पार्दै अगाडि गएको छ। कोभिड-१९ पान्डेमिकसँगै विकसित तथा विकासशील राष्ट्रहरूको जनस्वास्थ्य पूर्वाधारमा भएको कमजोरीलाई समेत उजागर गरेको छ। अनपेक्षित रूपमा कोभिड-१९ को संक्रमणको गतिले उचाइ लिँदा स्वास्थ्य पूर्वाधारहरू अपर्याप्त भए। २०२० को मार्चमा चीनमा कोभिड-१९ को महामारी नियन्त्रणमा आउँदै गर्दा विश्व कोभिड-१९ महामारीको चपेटामा परिरहेको थियो। मार्च २०२० मा चिनियाँ राष्ट्रपति सीले इटालीका प्रधानमन्त्री ग्युसेप कोन्टेसँग टेलिफोन वार्ता गर्दै चीन इटालीसँग महामारीविरुद्ध लड्न तथा हेल्थ सिल्क रोड निर्माणका लागि इटालीसँग मिलेर काम गर्न चाहेको बताएका थिए। त्यसयता हरेक चिनियाँ नेतृत्वले हेल्थ सिल्क रोडको निर्माणमा जोड दिँदै आएका छन्। चीनले आफ्ना हरेक स्वास्थ्य सहयोगमा यही अवधारणलाई अगाडि सार्दै आएको छ। पिटर्सन इन्स्टिच्युट अफ इन्टरनेशनल इकोनोमिक्सको एक अध्ययनले कोभिड -१९ महामारीको समयमा विश्व बजारमा स्वास्थ्य सुरक्षाका उपकरणहरूको करिब पचास प्रतिशत चिनियाँ उत्पादन भएको देखाएको छ। महामारीका बीचमा पनि कोभिड-१९ प्रतिरक्षाका लागि आवश्यक स्वास्थ्य सामाग्री उत्पादन तथा वितरणमा चीनको सामर्थ्यले कोभिड-१९ सँग जुधिरहेका गरिब देशहरूका सहयोगी सिद्ध भयो। डब्लुएचओलाई अमेरिकी राष्ट्रपति डोनाल्ड ट्रम्पले सहयोग बन्द गर्ने घोषणा गरेसँगै चीनले अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय जगतमा साझेदारीलाई बढाउँदै लगेको छ। हेल्थ सिल्क रोड र नेपाल कोभिड -१९ विरुद्ध लड्न नेपाललाई उत्तरी छिमेकी चीनले भ्याक्सिनसहितका स्वास्थ्य सामाग्री हस्तान्तरण गरेको छ। सन् २०२० को जुलाईमा चिनियाँ स्टेट काउन्सिलर तथा विदेशमन्त्री वाङ यीले चीन नेपाल, पाकिस्तान र अफगानिस्तानका विदेशमन्त्रीबीच भिडियो कन्फ्रेन्सको आयोजना गरे। पछिल्लो समय पश्चिमा राष्ट्र तथा भारतमा यो भिडियो कन्फ्रेन्सलाई ‘ट्रान्स-हिमालय क्वाड’ तयारीको रूपमा चर्चा भएको थियो। सम्बन्धित समाचार: के हो नेपालसमेत जोडिएको ‘हिमालय क्वाड’ : किन सशंकित हुँदैछन् भारत र पश्चिमा देश? सो कन्फ्रेन्समा कोभिड -१९ महामारीविरुद्ध साझेदारीलाई बढाउँदै लैजाने र चार राष्ट्रबीच संयुक्त संयन्त्र निर्माण, निर्बाध सञ्चालन हुने व्यापार तथा यातायातको रुट सुनिश्चित गर्ने, हेल्थ सिल्क रोडलाई अगाडि बढाउने सहमति भएको थियो। तीन देशहरू चीनसँग मिलेर बेल्ट एण्ड रोड साझेदारीलाई अगाडि बढाउँदै कोभिड-१९ महामारीपछि सामाजिक-आर्थिक पुन: उत्थानका लागि चीनसँग मिलेर काम गर्ने सहमतिसमेत भएको थियो। त्यस्तै २०२१ को अप्रिलमा पनि चिनियाँ विदेशमन्त्री यीले नेपालसहित दक्षिण एसियाका पाँच देशका विदेशमन्त्रीसँग भिडियो कन्फ्रेन्स आयोजना गरे। सो कन्फ्रेन्समा पनि उनले महामारीविरुद्ध लड्न जनताकको जीवन तथा स्वास्थ्यको रक्षा गर्न, जनस्वास्थ्यलाई कायम राख्न संयुक्त रूपमा बेल्ट एण्ड रोड साझेदारीलाई अगाडि बढाउने बताएका थिए। सो कन्फ्रेन्समार्फत् नेपालसहित दक्षिण एसियाका पाँच देशहरूले महामारी नियन्त्रणका लागि बेल्ट एण्ड रोड साझेदारीमार्फत् चीनसँग मिलेर काम गर्ने चाहना व्यक्त गरेका थिए। त्यस्तै जुन १९, २०२० मा चीनका विदेशमन्त्री यीले बीआरआईमा सहभागी नेपालसहित २५ देशका विदेशमन्त्री डब्लुएचओका महासचिव, राष्ट्र संघका उपमहासचिव सम्मिलित कन्फ्रेन्स आयोजना गरेका थिए। सो सम्मेलनमा पनि यीले हेल्थ सिल्क रोडमार्फत् भ्याक्सिनको वितरण, स्वास्थ्य सहायतालगायतलाई अगाडि बढाउने बताएका थिए। सो भिडियो कन्फ्रेन्सले १९ बुँदे संयुक्त वक्तव्य जारी भएको थियो। संयुक्त वक्तव्यको हेल्थ सिल्क रोड खण्डमा तीन बुँदामार्फत् कोभिड-१९ विरुद्धको साझेदारीको विषयमा जनाएको छ। त्यस्तै संयुक्त वक्तव्यमा स्वास्थ्य पूर्वाधार निर्माणसहित टेलिमेडिसिनको विकासका लागि लगानी आह्वान गरिएको छ। साथै बेल्ट एण्ड रोड तथा अन्य कार्यक्रममा सहभागी देशहरूलाई राष्ट्रिय कानुनले निर्दिष्ट गरेको नियम अनुरूप कोभिड -१९ विरुद्ध लड्न एक अर्का देशलाई सहयोग गर्ने उल्लेख छ। बीआरआई अन्तर्गतका परियोजना कोभिड -१९ महामारीका कारण प्रभावित हुँदै गर्दा चीनले हेल्थ सिल्क रोडलाई अगाडि बढाउँदै बीआरआई प्रभावित नभएको सन्देश सहभागी राष्ट्रहरूलाई दिएको छ। सिल्क हेल्थ रोड नेपाल जस्ता स्वास्थ्य पूर्वाधार कम तथा अपर्याप्त भएका देशहरूलाई स्वास्थ्य सेवा सुधारका लागि महत्त्वपूर्ण उपलब्धि हुन सक्छ। चीनले नेपालमा स्वास्थ्य संस्थाको निर्माणमा सहयोग पुर्‍याउँदै आएको छ। निजामती सेवा (सिभिल) अस्पतालको स्तरोन्नति परियोजना चिनियाँ सहयोगमा चलिरहेको छ। भरतपुर क्यान्सर अस्पताल, कीर्तिपुरको आयुर्वेद अनुसन्धान केन्द्रसहितका स्वास्थ्य केन्द्र स्थापना चिनियाँ सहयोगबाट भएका छन्। बीआरआईमा सहभागी राष्ट्रको हैसियतमा हेल्थ सिल्क रोडमार्फत् नेपालले ग्रामीण स्वास्थ्य सेवा सुधारमा फाइदा लिन सक्छ। यो सामाग्री पहिलोपटक पहिलोपोस्टमा प्रकाशित भएको हो।

हेल्थ सिल्क रोडः अवधारणा पुरानै चर्चा कोभिड -१९ सँगै, नेपाललाई के फाइदा? Read More »

65 Years Of Nepal-China Relation: Extend Toward Strategic Co-Operation

Dhakal Bidhur Today, August 1, the day of Nepal-China Relation; Nepal and China have a history of relations from the age of the history of Nepal and China and deep-rooted form the heart of the people from both countries. The significant of the bilateral relations between the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and the Democratic Republic of China has evolved since the days of Nepali monk and scholar Buddhabhadra (early 5th Century), Princess Bhrikuti, and Araniko and early visits of Chinese monks and scholars like Monk Fa Xian (Jin Dynasty), Monk Xuan Zang (Tang Dynasty) and Manjushree among others. 1st   of August 1955, both countries have formalized their historical relation by establishing diplomatic relations. Since these 65 years, both countries have mutual understanding and relation concerning each other and treated each other as an equal and sovereign and equal partner. With Five Principle of Peaceful Co-existence Nepal and China have unyielding respect and faith in each other as this ideology is incorporated in both countries’ foreign policy. The two countries share a range of 1,414 kilometers border in the Himalayan range of the northern side of Nepal. Nepal is only the country to have its consulate in Lhasa, capital of Tibet Autonomous Region. This shows that how Nepal and China shared their faith in each other.  There is a large presence of people of Nepali origin in Tibet living in harmony with the locals pursuing different professions. Nepal also maintains Consulate General in Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Our shared cultural connections extend beyond these mighty Himalayas to embrace deep-rooted arts, architectures, and scripts having commonalities. The styles of the temples, old buildings, their window panes, and wooden beams to name a few   that speak a volume about the strong influence cultures on either side for centuries. One of the most striking shreds of evidence is the continuity of the Ranjana script (scripts of Kathmandu based Newar ethnic community) used to inscribe sacred chants in the prayer wheels around Buddhist temples in China indicates the influence of Kathmandu in Chinese Buddhism. The script has been spread not only in Tibet but also throughout the monasteries of the Chinese mainland and Mongolia. High-Level Visit Extend Our relation in Strategic Co-operation The year 2019 was the year of High-level visits between the two countries. After 23 years, Jiang Zemin in 1996; president Xi Jinping Visit in Nepal in 2019. As he recalls it in his congratulatory message to President Bidhya Devi Bhandari on the occasion of 65 the anniversary of the diplomatic relation between two countries, he and Bhandari exchanged visits last year and elevated the bilateral relationship to a strategic partnership for cooperation featuring ever-lasting friendship for development and prosperity. President Xi also said Saturday that he attaches greater importance to the development of China-Nepal Relation and willing to work with Nepal to push for the continued advancement of the bilateral relation.  He also said that he is ready to work with the Nepali counterpart to bring greater benefits to the two peoples and make positive contributions to regional stability and development. Last year President Xi had visited Nepal reducing the gap of the high level visit from China. Last year President Bhandari and in 2018 Prime minster was welcomed by China as a state guest. Those visits had made the relation of both countries as strategic co-operation.  Exchange of bilateral visits immensely put in to further nurturing Nepal-China bilateral relations and promoting the understanding between the two countries. With the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) on 12 May 2017 in Kathmandu between Nepal and China, new avenues for bilateral cooperation in the mutually agreed areas are expected to open. The Government of the People’s Republic of China provided substantial and spontaneous support in search, relief, and rescue efforts of Nepal following the devastating earthquakes of 2015. China provided 3 billion Yuan on Nepal’s reconstruction to be used in the mutually selected 25 major projects for the period of 2016-2018. The two countries signed three separate bilateral Agreements on Economic and Technical Cooperation on 23 December 2016, 15 August 2017, and 21 June 2018 for providing a Chinese grant of one billion Yuan each to Nepal for implementing post-disaster reconstruction projects, livelihood projects, and other mutually agreed projects. Likewise, China has to support Nepal in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Nepal is cooperating with China for it. Nepal has spread its hands of help by donating masks to China to fight against this pandemic in Wuhan. On the visit of President Xi, both sides have recognized that Mount Sagarmatha/Zhumulangama as an external symbol of friendship between Nepal and China. In this state visit, Nepal and China have taken BRI as an important opportunity to deepen mutually-beneficial cooperation in all fields comprehensively, jointly pursue common prosperity and dedicate them to maintaining peace, stability, and development in the region. They have agreed that the bilateral relationship between Nepal and China has entered a new phase. It is always, Nepal has committed in One China Policy acknowledging that Taiwan is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory and Tibet affairs are China’s internal affairs and the determination on not allowing any anti-China activities on its soil. To intensify the implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative to enhance connectivity, encompassing such vital components as ports, roads, railways, aviation, and communications within the overarching framework of trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network to significantly contribute to Nepal’s development agenda that includes graduating from LDC at an early date, becoming middle-income country by 2030 and realizing the SDGs by the same date. Nepal and China are exchanging and cooperation in education, culture, tourism, traditional medicine, media, think tanks, and youth at different levels. On that visit, China consented to the establishment of Nepal’s Consulate General in Chengdu, Sichuan Province of China. Nepal is the founding member of the AIIB and holds the status of Dialogue Partner in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

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CTA Election, Mounting American Persuade And Impact On Nepal-China Relation

Dhakal Bidhur On Sunday, Tibetan refugees are voting to elect the leadership of their government. The final phase of the election, to be held on April 11 in Dharamshala and other cities around the world will elect the next Sikyong (President). The final two candidates with the slogan of ‘Independent Tibet’ are in the contest. The government of Tibetan exile, known as the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), has meanwhile been waging anti-China activities in favor of an independent Tibet. This year, Lobsang Sangay has completed his second term. Meanwhile, the US has implemented the Tibet Policy and Support Act (TPSA) in line with its strategy of encompassing China. The United States is helping the Tibetan community through an act issued by the United States amid opposition from China. As of December 22, 2020, more than 80,000 voters around the world have registered to vote. Of these, more than 55,000 are in India alone. Big pooling is going to be held in Dharamshala ; the capital of the CTA. Forty-five members will be elected for the 16th Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile (TPiE). Disputes are growing among the Tibetan community over the election of a new Sikyong. Initially, eight candidates appeared in the election race, but in the final competition, two have been selected. Candidates have been campaigning on social media. Penpa Tsering and Kelsang Dorjee Aukatsang are currently vying for the post of head of Tibet’s exiled government. Tsering was also contesting in 2016. He is a former envoy of the Dalai Lama to Washington DC. Dorsi is also the Dalai Lama’s representative for North America. Former Deputy Speaker Dolma Giari has dropped out of the competition. Although she has served as home minister in Tibet’s government-in-exile, it is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post. On the other hand, discussions have started among the Tibetan community regarding Dolma’s exit. In Dolma, two men have even started analyzing the politics of Khampa. Those contesting the election have given slogans of unity, education, and patriotism. On the other hand, the current heads of government have been accused of failing to facilitate dialogue between the Dalai Lama and the Chinese Communist Party. Mounting American Persuade The United States has been attacking China over Tibet. In this case, he is expanding his influence. Diplomatic tensions between China and the United States escalated as the world struggled against COVID-19. At the root of the controversy was the US’s Tibet Policy and Support Act (TPSA). The controversy escalated when the US Congress passed a bill.  American policy on Tibet and reaffirmed the US’s support for the Dalai Lama and the CTA. This Act will result in economic and visa sanctions on any of the Chinese officials who interfere with the succession of the Dalai Lama. Not only that, but the Act will also require Beijing to allow the opening of a US consulate in Lhasa before any new Chinese consulate can be opened in the US. The TPSA passed by the both house of Congress of the US as an amendment to the $1.4 trillion government spending bill and the $900 billion Covid-19 relief package. The Act sets aside, $1 million per annum for the Special US Coordinator on Tibet. $675,000 for scholarship programs, $575,000 for scholarly exchanges, $ 8 million for China’s Tibet Autonomous Region, $6 million for Tibetan refugees in India and Nepal, $ 3.4 million for Voice of America and Radio Free Asia reporting on Tibet, and $3 million for Tibetan exiles have been allocated for the government. Tibet has been a major weapon against the United States in attacking China. Claiming to be the new head of government, Dorjee announced in his election manifesto that he would take the Tibetan independence struggle to the next level. He pledged to expand the capacity of offices in Delhi, Washington DC and Brussels, and Taipei. He also pledged to advance the Tibetan freedom struggle strategically by enhancing coordination with the central government of India. ‘Let’s move forward together for one nation, one people, one struggle; “Let’s use collective energy and resources for great thinking, invention and Tibetan independence, rights and dignity,” he said. Both candidates have ties to the United States. Thus, the US influence on the Tibetan community in the region is likely to increase. This seems to have an impact on Nepal, which has adopted a ‘one-China policy. The strategy of digitizing the activities related to independent Tibet seems to have an impact on Nepal as well. The US always has argued against Nepal on the issue of Tibetan issue. The US Secretary of the State  2019, asked the Nepal government to honor the principle of “non-refoulment”, a cornerstone of international refugee law whereby asylum seekers or refugees can’t be forced to return to a country where they can be subjected to persecution. In his note to the PM, Secretary Pompeo made a special mention regarding Tibetan refugees in Nepal and highlighted Nepal’s reassurance to protect the rights of Tibetans in Nepal, particularly the principle of non-refoulment. Nepal is firmly committed to the One China policy and is also committed not to allow its soil to be used for any inimical activities against China. CTA announcing free Tibet will impact on Nepal-China relations. The aggression activities by upcoming CTA leadership; will have a certain influence on communities settling in Nepal. Winch will certainly impact Nepal’s policy. It is and need to be a great concern to both of the nation. This Article Initially published in The Asia Live in. Click hear to read archive of the original article.

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‘Himalayan Quad’: Western Skeptical On ‘Tran-Himalayan Cooperation’

Dhakal Bidhur Globe is fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. The global powers are fighting themselves for geopolitical supremacy. Nepal’s geopolitical position in South Asia is considered strategically important to all. Two neighbors, China and India, want to keep Nepal aside from them. Meanwhile, for the United States, Nepal has been geography of strategic importance for South Asia. At this time, the Himalayan nation Nepal has been facing a clash between the three power Nations. Nepal, a partner of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRE) proposed by China; is working together and separately with its three friendly nations in various multilateral fora. The US is been working hard to get Nepal, a member of the BRI, to participate in its Indo-Pacific Strategy (IFS)- a defense policy. On the other hand, the US is in a way toward investment publicly in Nepal through the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). ‘The controversial’ MCC is yet to be passed from the parliament. Together with the IFS, the US has initiated a Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) involving Japan, Australia, and India to counter Chinese influence in the region. In particular, the first virtual conference of heads of state/government was held in March this year, 14 years after the forum was first initiated by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe as the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue. Interest of each and concern at the conference was China’s growing influence in the Indo-Pacific region; and on the other hand, China’s support in the fight against COVID-19 in this area. At the same conference,US President Joe Biden announced more than a billion vaccines would be distributed in the region by the end of 2022 to reduce Chinese influence. Besides this ‘Quad’, another ‘Quad’ is in term of discussion last months in Indian and western media- ‘Himalayan Quad’ by China with its strategic partner Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. What is the Himalayan Quad and How its Starts? On the 27th of July 2020, Foreign Ministers of Afghanistan, China, Nepal, and Pakistan held a video conference on COVID-19. In the meeting chaired by Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi, Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan foreign ministers were attended.  The Western and Indian media describes it as China’s ‘COVID-19 Diplomacy’. In November 2020, Indian scholar Jagannath Panda in a Journal of Analysis and Information in issue China brief published by the Jamestown Foundation called it as Trans-Himalayan ‘Quad’, and lament toward China as ‘Beijing’s Territorialism’. Indicating this quadrilateral video conference between four nations, Panda offers a new hue on it. The quadrilateral meeting focused on the enhancing Quadrilateral Corporation to encounter the COVID-19 pandemic was roasted as the security alliance and connected toward the Quad as the US, India, Japan and Australia are practicing in the Indo-Pacific region as the ‘Nato’. On April 2021, Yuri M Yarmolinsky, an analyst with the Belarusian Institute for Strategic Research and former Consular of Embassy of the Republic of Belarus to the Republic of India, in an article published in ORF Raisina Debates, noted the meeting as China’s unilateral and expansionist action in the region linking toward the increasing activity of the Quad. As the United States expands its investment in the Asia-Pacific region, Northern neighbor China has also extended a helping hand to neighboring countries. On the quadrilateral meeting ministers of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nepal supported Wang Yi’s four-point cooperation initiative and thanked China for providing medical and food assistance, and for sharing experience on COVID-19 containment. In particular, the ministers highly commended President Xi Jinping’s initiative to make the vaccine a global public good. According to the FMPRC press release, these three nations will work with China in solidarity to deepen cooperation against COVID-19, strengthen joint response mechanisms, ensure unimpeded trade and transportation routes, facilitate personnel and trade flows, advance the “Silk Road of health”, and build a community with a shared future for mankind. Not only that FMPRC stated that these three nations will work with China to deepen Belt and Road cooperation, accelerate recovery in socio-economic and livelihood development, and promote post-COVID economic growth. This cooperation- Silk Road of Health, initiated by China is been called ‘Vaccine Diplomacy’ by Westerners. Yarmolinsky had added with SCMP this April that China already partners with Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan on security and strategic cooperation. ‘Nepal is a strong foothold in the Himalayas in the context of the Sino-Indian territorial dispute, Afghanistan is a significant factor in ensuring security and maintaining stability in Xinjiang,’ he was quoted by SCMP. Beijing and Islamabad have been working on a US$62 billion connectivity and infrastructure project known as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor – part of Beijing’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative to grow a China-centered global trading network – and the two sides have also cooperated on tackling security challenges around their shared border. Nepal, meanwhile, receives foreign direct investment and economic aid from Beijing, which has also opened a training academy in the small Himalayan country for the paramilitary police force that guards its border with Tibet. The two nations’ armies have held counterterrorism drills together in the past, too. On a horizon, western media and experts tend to explain this cooperation as a security alliance as ‘Himalaya Quad’. In March, when the Quad leader meeting was held virtually, the Chinese and Russian Foreign ministry meet at Not only that, in March, the first meeting of the Quad was held and the Chinese and Russian foreign ministers hold the bilateral meeting in Guilin city in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. The meeting shows the the unity against US and EU in the region. China and Russian have always followed the ‘four-point agreement on showing firm support from each other’, State Councilor Yi stated in that meeting. ‘We should uphold the universally recognized international law. China is willing to further strengthen cooperation with Russia under the multilateral frameworks, such as the United Nations, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and BRICS, jointly safeguard multilateralism, maintain the international system with the UN at its core and the international order based on international law, while firmly opposing unilateral sanctions as well as interference in other countries internal

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US Tibetan Policy: Possibilities Of Using Nepal’s Land Against China

At present, there is debate of Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) in Nepal. Secondly the debate of US Indo-Pacific Strategy (IPS) is reaching in peak. But, the US bill on Tibetan Policy and Support Act 2019 is in under the shadow which directly impact on Nepal-China relations. The policy targeting to the Tibet, an autonomous region of China has focused on Nepal to. This new law has shown signs of interference with Nepal’s ‘One China Policy’. However, there has been no discussion of a Tibetan bill passed by the United States in Nepal that has been embroiled in MCC controversy. In fact, in the political document presented in the second full meeting of the central committee of the ruling party of Nepal; Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) was stated that IPS had come in line with US strategy to surround China. Later It was corrected after the many of CCM agitate on the phrase. The document remains silent about the MCC and the bill. Meeting formed the task force under the leadership of senior leader JhalaNath Khanal to review the MCC. PrimeMinister Kp Sharma Oli, one of the Chair of the CPN is in position to pass the MCC from the parliament. This article is focused on the another factor affecting Nepal-China relations; US Tibetan Policy and Support Act 2019. What is the latest US law on Tibet? A law passed by the US parliament last month has closely monitored the human rights situation in Tibet. Also support the activities of ‘Dalai Lama’ and his followers. Not only that, it supported the separationist of the Tibet. The law is expected to put pressure on China to set up a US diplomatic center in Tibet. Under this legal foundation, the United States will now ban the new Chinese consulate in the United States until it establishes its diplomatic center in Tibet. However, China has commented that the US move would help those seeking independent Tibet. China has accused the US of questioning China’s sovereignty and geographical integrity. The law that is now passed will replace the ‘Tibetan Policy Act 2002’. US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi has recently raised the issue of Tibet. “We are supporting the rights of religious freedom of Tibetan citizens,” she said during a vote in parliament last month, “The Tibetan Buddhist community has the right to elect its religious leader and future Dalai Lama.” The new law has added a provision for the President to provide financial support to NGOs in Tibet for the sustainable development of the Tibetan community, to preserve cultural and historicity as well as to protect health education and the environment. Likewise, the bill envisages a special coordinator to look into the Tibet issue. The aim of which is to make the selection of new Dalai Lama through a democratic way through dialogue between the Dalai Lama’s representative and the Chinese government. Nepal under the new law Nepal is also discussed in US laws regarding Tibet. The third section of the law deals with the selection of the successor of the Dalai Lama. In this section, Nepal and Bhutan, India, Mongolia, China, Russia and the United States have a Tibetan Buddhist community accusing China of interfering in the selection of a new Dalai Lama. It also included the statement given by the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman on March 29, 1919, that the selection of the successor of the living Buddha along with the new Dalai Lama should be in accordance with Chinese laws and regulations. In this section, explaining American policy, the participation of the Tibetan Buddhist community in the election of a new Dalai Lama is mentioned in a traditional way. According to the wish of the 14th Dalai Lama, there should be an election of the 15th Dalai Lama. The law stipulates that the Chinese government or any government’s activities that restrict Tibetan Buddhist activity will violate the basic religious freedom of the Tibetan people and Tibetan Buddhists. The United States may be banned from engaging in such activities. By which activities of the The fifth section of this law also mentions the democratic system of the exiled Tibetan community. Under which the Tibetan refugee community around the world should be given the right to elect a leader with the right to self-governance. In section 4 of it, referring to the Tibetan community seeking to preserve its culture, religion and language, the US State Department must deal with the Government of Nepal. “The Secretary of State should urge the Government of Nepal to honor the Gentleman’s Agreement with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and to provide legal documentation to long-staying Tibetan residents in Nepal who fled a credible threat of persecution in Tibet in order to allow them to more fully participate in the economy and society of Nepal. ‘ By this Act, it is authorized to be appropriated $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2021 through 2025 for the Office of the United States Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues. Likewise, US will invest 1,250,000 $ on Name of Tibetan Scholarship Program each years on Nepal like nations. US will invest in Nepal on project of Humanitarian Assistance and Support to Tibetan Refugees in South Asia. It also amid to invest $8,000,000 for each year of the fiscal years 2021 through 2025 under to support activities which preserve cultural traditions and promote sustainable development, education, and environmental conservation in Tibetan communities in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in other Tibetan communities in China. Under the Assistance for Tibetans in India and Nepal, US will invest 6,000,000$ in name of promotion and preservation of Tibetan Culture and language Development. This investment is directly amid to development of future generation of Tibetan leaders. It will impact the relations between Nepal and China. The act has authorized to be appropriated $3,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2021 through 2025 for programs to strengthen the capacity of Tibetan institutions and strengthen democracy, governance, information and international outreach, and research. Not only

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